"Teaching and Learning Science through Multiple Representations: Intuitions and Executive Functions"
Hansen served as a lecturer for both the undergraduate Bachelor of Arts in Education Sciences (BAES) and the Master of Arts in Teaching/Credential (MAT) programs at UCI, and since 2002, as an undergraduate course lecturer at California State University, Long Beach. She earned her Ph.D. specialized in Learning, Cognition, and Development.
Richland’s research foci include children's reasoning, higher order thinking, mathematical thinking, and executive function. She is principal investigator (PI) on an IES grant that is studying how stress responses impact math learning in children. She also is PI on a National Science Foundation grant researching UCI undergraduates’ current stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of stressors on students’ learning, with the goal of testing strategies for supporting effective e-learning during this period. Richland is director of UCI’s Science of Learning Laboratory.
Reasoning about visual representations in science requires the ability to control one’s attention, inhibit attention to irrelevant or incorrect information, and hold information in mind while manipulating it actively—all aspects of the limited-capacity cognitive system described as humans’ executive functions. This article describes pedagogical intuitions on best practices for how to sequence visual representations among pre-service teachers, adult undergraduates, and middle school children, with learning also tested in the middle school sample. Interestingly, at all ages, most people reported beliefs about teaching others that were different from beliefs about how they would learn. Teaching beliefs were most often that others would learn better from presenting representations one at a time, serially; while learning beliefs were that they themselves would learn best from simultaneous presentations. Students did learn best from simultaneously presented representations of mitosis and meiosis, but only when paired with self-explanation prompts to discuss the relationships between the graphics. These results provide new recommendations for helping students draw connections across visual representations, particularly mitosis and meiosis, and suggest that science educators would benefit from shifting their teaching beliefs to align with beliefs about their own learning from multiple visual representations.
"Post‐training stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex impairs working memory training performance"
Au’s interests surround the nature and enhancement of brain plasticity, including the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and computerized training of targeted cognitive processes such as working memory. His current focus combines his two interests by evaluating the enhancement of cognitive training benefits using tDCS. He recently was accepted in the TL-1 scholars training program at the UC Irvine Institute for Clinical and Translational Science (ICTS).
Moon graduated from the University of California, Irvine in 2017 with a B.S. in Cognitive Sciences and a B.A. in Education Sciences. As an undergraduate he served as lab manager for Jaeggi’s WPM lab. Currently, Moon is a graduate student at UC Riverside pursuing a degree in neuroscience and a member of UCR’s CALLA (Cognitive Agility Across the Lifespan) lab. His research interest includes visual search, attention, and perceptual learning using computational modeling, EEG, and deep learning techniques.
Jaeggi researches training and transfer, individual differences in working memory capacity and executive control, as well as the nature of working memory limitations across the lifespan. In addition to directing UCI's Working Memory and Plasticity Lab, Jaeggi is a fellow of the Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory and holds a courtesy appointment in the Department of Cognitive Sciences in UCI's School of Social Sciences.
Research investigating transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance cognitive training augments both our understanding of its long‐term effects on cognitive plasticity as well as potential applications to strengthen cognitive interventions. Previous work has demonstrated enhancement of working memory training while applying concurrent tDCS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, the optimal stimulation parameters are still unknown. For example, the timing of tDCS delivery has been shown to be an influential variable that can interact with task learning. In the present study, we used tDCS to target the right DLPFC while participants trained on a visuospatial working memory task. We sought to compare the relative efficacy of online stimulation delivered during training to offline stimulation delivered either immediately before or afterwards. We were unable to replicate previously demonstrated benefits of online stimulation; however, we did find evidence that offline stimulation delivered after training can actually be detrimental to training performance relative to sham. We interpret our results in light of evidence suggesting a role of the right DLPFC in promoting memory interference, and conclude that while tDCS may be a promising tool to influence the results of cognitive training, more research and an abundance of caution are needed before fully endorsing its use for cognitive enhancement. This work suggests that effects can vary substantially in magnitude and direction between studies, and may be heavily dependent on a variety of intervention protocol parameters such as the timing and location of stimulation delivery, about which our understanding is still nascent.
His current research focuses on how families and educators in out-of-school environments can use design theory and design methodologies to co-create with the learners, activities and contexts for effective learning of STEM+Art content and practices. Sedas received his Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering and a Master in Public Administration from Brigham Young University, and a Master in Education In Learning and Developmental Sciences from Indiana University. For his doctoral work he is specializing in Teaching, Learning, and Educational Improvement (TLEI). Pepper serves as his advisor.
An artist by training, Peppler is an associate professor in both Informatics and Education at UCI. She engages in research that focuses on the intersection of arts, computational technologies and interest-driven learning. Peppler holds a Ph.D. in Urban Schooling from UCLA, where she was part of the NSF-sponsored team that designed and studied the Scratch platform. Peppler earned a National Science Foundation early CAREER award for her work on how e-textiles and other computational construction kits popularized through the Maker movement can deepen learning and broaden participation across a range of STEM fields. Her research been published in leading journals, including Computers & Human Behavior; Mind, Culture & Activity; British Journal of Educational Technology; Journal of Science and Educational Technology; Studies in Arts Education; Review of Research in Education; Teachers College Record; and Learning, Media & Technology.
The learning sciences, informed by a diversity of fields such as cognitive science, anthropology, education, and sociology, has a long history with design while engaging in the study of learning in real-world, non-simplified contexts. From its genesis approximately thirty years ago, the learning sciences as a field has grown to encompass the study of learning from different lenses, as well as to advance theories of learning through the design and study of new technologies and environments. Within the realm of the learning sciences, the concept of design and design thinking is of great consequence as it helps us understand how teaching and learning happen in the rapidly changing 21st-century knowledge society, as well as can be used to inform the design of effective, innovative, and equitable interventions. Design thinking in the learning sciences can be made manifest in activities ranging from iterative curriculum design, to researching affordances and constraints of tools, techniques, and learning environments, to appropriating design concepts in both physical and digital spaces. It also sheds light on how the socio-material histories of materials inform learning and participation. This bibliography focuses on learner-centered design principles and how various research methodologies (e.g., participatory design and design-based research) contribute to appropriating design thinking into learning, teaching, and pedagogical processes. The evolution of this field is interwoven in the powers of design.
"Selection into, and academic benefits from, middle school dance elective courses among urban youth"
Although research shows associations between adolescents’ general arts involvement and academic performance, little research documents links between enrollment in middle school dance elective courses and academic achievement, especially within low-income, urban populations. Further, differences between adolescents who do and do not have access to, or self-select into, middle school dance electives have yet to be identified. We prospectively followed a large (n = 31,332), ethnically diverse sample of children from preschool through 8th grade in Miami, Florida. About 7% of adolescents enrolled in a dance elective course at some point in middle school (6th–8th grade), with the majority of those (68.8%) taking dance for only one year. Black students were more likely than White and Latinx students to attend middle schools that did not offer dance. When dance courses were available, males and Black students were less likely to select into a dance elective. Students who took dance in middle school showed greater initial social skills at age four and better prior academic achievement in elementary school compared with those who did not take dance. Importantly, controlling for all preexisting selection effects and prior academic achievement, dance engagement in middle school was associated with higher grade point averages and standardized test scores, better school attendance, and a lower likelihood of suspension during middle school, with stronger positive effects observed for taking dance electives for multiple years. Implications for future research and educational policy are discussed.
"A Comprehensive Professional Development Approach for Supporting Science, Technology, and Engineering Curriculum in Preschool: Connecting Contexts for Dual Language Learners"
The purpose of this chapter is to present initial findings of teacher practice outcomes to illustrate promising aspects of the readiness through integrative science and engineering (RISE) professional development (PD) approach for informing early childhood science, technology, and engineering (STE) curriculum and PD interventions. In this chapter, the framework grounding RISE STE curriculum, the home-to-school approach for developing meaningful RISE home-school connections (HSCs), and the structural components of RISE PD (which consisted of practice-based, individualized, and ongoing supports) are described. Sixty-two teachers (n = 37 RISE, n = 25 Control) and 347 primary caregivers participated in this randomized controlled trial study. Preliminary evidence of the positive impacts of the RISE intervention on teachers' STE attitudes, practice, and knowledge was obtained from teacher report. Evidence for positive HSCs was obtained from teacher and parent surveys, as well as on-going coach documentation of teachers' home-to-school practices.
The present study examined the concurrent relations between culture-specific dimensions of family engagement for low-income, Pan-Latine families and children’s narrative ability, a critical predictor of reading success. One hundred seventy-five children and their caregivers were recruited from seven Head Start centers in a large city in the northeastern region of the US. Family engagement was assessed through a culturally grounded instrument (McWayne et al. 2013; McWayne and Melzi 2014) that measures parental behavior along one school-based and three home-based engagement dimensions. Children’s spontaneous narrative productions were elicited through two tasks: a picture-elicited and a conversational narrative task. Findings showed that family engagement dimensions were differentially related to important aspects of children’s narrative production, even after accounting for child and parent demographic characteristics. Specifically, families’ efforts to provide stimulating experiences for their children beyond “the basics” (i.e., Supplemental Education) were significantly related to children’s ability to tell longer narratives during the picture-elicited narrative task. In addition, parents’ active school-based engagement (i.e., School Participation) was significantly associated with children’s ability to narrate independently in the conversational narrative task.
"Did consequential accountability policies decrease the share of visual and performing arts education in U.S. public secondary schools during the No Child Left Behind era?"
Farkas’s research expertise includes special education needs and consequences, pre-school readiness, disparities and impacts of child care, children’s growth trajectories in reading, math, and science, and early interventions for students who have fallen behind in reading. His research has made a major contribution to understanding the school achievement gap for low income and ethnic minority students. Farkas has authored or co-authored four books and more than 125 articles in peer-reviewed journals. Collectively, his work has been cited more than 14,000 times. Recently, he was honored with the American Sociological Association Willard Wallen Award for lifetime achievement in the field of sociology of education.
Brouillette is professor of arts and educational policy at UCI. She researches educational leadership, school reform, and arts education. Brouillette directs the Center for Learning through the Arts and is managing director/editor of the Journal for Learning through the Arts. Her recent work focuses on integrating visual and performing arts activities with academic subjects in ways that boost student engagement, recall, academic achievement, and matching arts activities with children's developmental level in order to maximize learning. Brouillette’s most recent publication Arts Integration in Diverse K-5 Classrooms demonstrates how arts integration allows students to engage with concepts on their own developmental level.
It has been asserted that the test-based accountability of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) increased instruction in tested subject areas reading and math, leading to reductions in arts education. We tested this using two waves of data, before and after NCLB implementation, in a difference-in-differences design. The analyses indicated that the total teacher workforce increased substantially during this time period, while the percentage of reading and math educators remained constant, leading to an overall increase in the teacher corps for these subjects. In contrast, the percentage of music and visual arts educators decreased during this period, leading to a decrease in their numbers. Average subject-specific teaching loads increased across all of these subjects. The result was substantial increases in the number of reading and math courses taught, combined with overall stability in the number of arts courses. However, comparisons across states with varying implementation of test-based school accountability prior to NCLB failed to show a relationship between such accountability and changes in the percentages and teaching loads of reading, math, and arts educators. Thus, at least in terms of cross-state comparisons, changes in these outcomes cannot be attributed to state-specific changes in accountability brought on by the introduction of NCLB.
"Student Spacing and Self‑Testing Strategies and their Associations with Learning in an Upper Division Microbiology Course"
Previously, Rodriguez was a postdoctoral scholar in the Digital Learning Lab, managing the NSF-funded project, Investigating Virtual Learning Environments. Before joining UC Irvine, he worked at WestEd helping schools make data-driven decisions that improved learning outcomes in classrooms.
Fischer is Assistant Professor of Educational Effectiveness at the Hector Research Institute of Education Sciences and Psychology at the University of Tübingen in Germany and a Research Affiliate with the UC Irvine School of Education. Previously, he served as a distinguished postdoctoral scholar at UC Irvine working under the mentorship of Mark Warschauer and Dean Richard Arum. He received his Ph.D. in Learning Technologies from the University of Michigan
Zhou researches the use of technology tools to support learning in various disciplines. In the School of Education, she served as a postdoctoral scholar in the Digital Learning Lab, working on the CS10K Computer Science Education project, CS1C, to build a Computer Science Teacher Authorization program and a professional learning community for computer science teachers.
Warschauer is a Professor of Education and Informatics and director of the Digital Learning Lab (DLL) at UC Irvine. He has been a leader in the field of digital learning—with a focus on the needs of diverse learners—since the early 1990s. Current major projects include a study of online learning in higher education, a randomized-control trial of a promising new literacy software for middle school students, and the use of conversational agents to create interactive science videos for young children. His DLL team is exploring new approaches to data mining, machine learning, and learning analytics to analyze the learning and educational data that result from use of new digital tools.
A growing body of work has shown that two specific study strategies help explain differences in learning and achievement in gateway courses: spacing (breaking up study sessions across multiple days) and self-testing (actively recalling information from memory). However, it is still unclear whether the benefits of these strategies are applicable in more advanced biology courses, and whether promoting effective study practices in these courses (spacing and self-testing) is related to increased use of these practices and greater learning outcomes. We studied two senior-level microbiology courses that were taught by the same instructor. Using a quasi-experimental design, one course additionally received a light-touch study skills intervention, where the instructor introduced the concepts of spacing and self-testing while also providing reminders to students about utilizing these strategies. We found that, while the intervention was not related to increased use of spacing and self-testing, both strategies were positively related to learning, as measured by the final course grade. Results from multiple regression analyses revealed that engaging in spacing throughout the course was the most consistent predictor of final course grade, even after accounting for other study strategies, demographic characteristics, and prior academic achievement. Our results add to the literature emphasizing the importance of spacing in increasing students’ achievement in STEM courses.
While recent research demonstrates that teacher noticing is a core construct of teaching, it also raises new questions about this construct. Here, we offer an expanded framework that addresses three key questions. Specifically, we suggest that attending involves not only selecting particular features of instruction to observe, but also disregarding aspects of classroom interactions that are less consequential. In addition, we propose that a stance of inquiry about observed phenomena is central to drawing inferences about observed phenomena. Finally, we extend the boundaries of teacher noticing to include shaping, the act of creating interactions that provide increased opportunities to attend to and interpret noteworthy mathematical interactions. In other words, teachers are not simply passive bystanders in the act of noticing, rather they shape interactions to gain access to additional information to allow for further observation and interpretation of student thinking.
"The Roles of Perspective Taking, Empathic Concern, and Prosocial Moral Reasoning in the Self-Reported Prosocial Behaviors of Filipino and Turkish Young Adults"
Gülseven's research focuses on parental, cultural, and contextual correlates of prosocial behaviors and moral development in children and adolescents. She is collaborating with Professor Sandra Simpkins, Chancellor's Professor Emerita Deborah Vandell, Distinguished Professor Jacquelynne Eccles, and Associate Professor Nicole Zarrett (University of South Carolina) in the Templeton Character Development Project to explore the development of five character virtues including prosocial behavior, cooperative behavior, self-control, emotion regulation, and hard work from childhood through adolescence. Gülseven received her B.S. in Psychology from Abant İzzet Baysal University, in Turkey and her M.S. and Ph.D. in Human Development and Family Science from the University of Missouri.
Carlo’s primary research interest focuses on understanding positive social development and health in culturally diverse children and adolescents. Many of his projects focus on U.S. ethnic/racial groups, including Latino/a youth and families. He has published more than 200 books, chapters, and research papers. He currently serves as a member of the Society for Research in Child Development Governing Council, as associate editor of the International Journal of Behavioral Development, and as co-editor of the upcoming APA Handbook of Adolescent Development.
Traditional social cognitive model of prosocial development suggests important links between both sociocognitive and socioemotive traits and prosocial behaviors. The present study examined the relations among perspective taking, empathic concern, prosocial moral reasoning, and public, emotional, compliant, and anonymous prosocial behaviors in Filipino and Turkish young adults to test the generalizability of this traditional model. Participants were 257 college students recruited from state universities in Ankara, Turkey (57 women, 83 men; Mage = 19.26 years, SD = 0.63) and Manila, the Philippines (75 women, 42 men; Mage = 18.41 years, SD = 1.44). Results showed that the relations among perspective taking, empathic concern, prosocial moral reasoning, and four types of self-reported prosocial behaviors were robust across two countries and gender. Perspective taking was positively related to empathic concern, which, in turn, was positively related to emotional and compliant prosocial behaviors. Perspective taking was also positively related to prosocial moral reasoning, which, in turn, was positively related to anonymous and negatively related to public prosocial behaviors. Overall, the findings provide support for the generalizability of traditional model of prosocial development and extend our understanding of prosocial behaviors to two non-Western, collectivist-oriented societies.