For the past three years, Yenda Prado has been a guest lecturer for the International Center's I-STEPS program. Her most recent lecture to I-STEPS students was on the topic of U.S. Classroom Culture.
I-STEPS is a 10-week program providing international students opportunities to learn more about U.S. culture, receive suggestions on how to succeed academically and socially at UCI, and explore on-campus resources and services.
Yenda Prado is a first year Ph.D. in Education Student pursuing a dual specialization in Learning, Teaching, Cognition, and Development (LTCD) and Language, Literacy, and Technology (LLT). She is advised by Professor Mark Warschauer. Her research interests include language and literacy development in neuro-diverse populations, language teacher professional development, and technology applications in language and literacy teaching. Her prior international education experience includes serving as both Head ESL Teacher and Academic Director of a private international language school in Irvine.
During their meeting on October 4, Teachers of Tomorrow Co-Presidents introduced the club's 2017-18 officers.
Co-Presidents: Jarrod Ventura and Jennifer Lynn (pictured below)
Events Coordinator: Lani Matsumura
Budget Coordinator: LaTiara Roberts
Email Correspondent: Dulce Perez
Historian & Outreach Chair: Amrit Sidhu
Teachers of Tomorrow is sponsored by the UCI School of Education. Multiple Subject Coordinator Susan Toma is the club faculty advisor.
ToT welcomes all undergraduates who are interested in learning more about education. The club provides ways for participants to learn more about teaching while meeting other undergraduates who are interested in the profession. The club also offers a variety of academic and social activities to benefit students who are planning careers in education.
Club website: https://teachersoftomorrowuci.weebly.com/about-us.html
Assistant Professor Brandy Gatlin is first author of an article in Exceptional Children: "Elementary Students’ Use of Dialect and Reading Achievement: Examining Students with Disabilities."
Nonmainstream American English, or dialect, among children may have important implications for reading research and practice. However, much of the research involving relations between dialect and literacy has analyzed dialect use in only one context and has omitted students with speech, language, and learning disabilities. Consequently, we examined dialect use in an oral narrative and two writing samples in relation to concurrent and longitudinal reading outcomes in a diverse sample of students, including those with diagnosed disabilities. Overall, most students used features of dialect in oral and written language. Dialect use was significantly and negatively predictive of reading outcomes the same year and 2 years later. Moderator analyses indicated a similar relationship between dialect use and reading for students with speech, language, and learning disabilities, suggesting that students with these disabilities who also use dialect may be at increased risk for reading difficulties. Implications for practice and future research are provided.
Gatlin, B., & Wanzek, J. (September 2017). Elementary students’ use of dialect and reading achievement: Examining students with disabilities. Exceptional Children. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402917727248
Chancellor's Professor Carol Connor has published in Prevention Science: "Using Technology and Assessment to Personalize Instruction: Preventing Reading Problems."
Children who fail to learn to read proficiently are at serious risk of referral to special education, grade retention, dropping out of high school, and entering the juvenile justice system. Accumulating research suggests that instruction regimes that rely on assessment to inform instruction are effective in improving the implementation of personalized instruction and, in turn, student learning. However, teachers find it difficult to interpret assessment results in a way that optimizes learning opportunities for all of the students in their classrooms. This article focuses on the use of language, decoding, and comprehension assessments to develop personalized plans of literacy instruction for students from kindergarten through third grade, and A2i technology designed to support teachers’ use of assessment to guide instruction. Results of seven randomized controlled trials demonstrate that personalized literacy instruction is more effective than traditional instruction, and that sustained implementation of personalized literacy instruction first through third grade may prevent the development of serious reading problems. We found effect sizes from .2 to .4 per school year, which translates into about a 2-month advantage. These effects accumulated from first through third grade with a large effect size (d = .7) equivalent to a full grade-equivalent advantage on standardize tests of literacy. These results demonstrate the efficacy of technology-supported personalized data-driven literacy instruction to prevent serious reading difficulties. Implications for translational prevention research in education and healthcare are discussed.
Connor, C. M., (September 2015). Using technology and assessment to personalize instruction: Preventing reading problems. Prevention Science, pp. 1-11. 10.1007/s11121-017-0842-9
"Eight-Year Latent Class Trajectories of Academic and Social Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder"
Professor George Farkas has published with colleagues in the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: "Eight-Year Latent Class Trajectories of Academic and Social Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder."
We examined trajectories of academic and social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to identify those who might be at risk for especially severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. We estimated a series of growth mixture models using data from two subsamples of children participating in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) including those with at least baseline and 96-month data for reading and mathematics achievement (n = 392; 77.3% male; M age = 7.7; SD = 0.8) or social skills ratings from teachers (n = 259; 74.9% male; M age = 7.6; SD = 0.8). We compared latent trajectories for children with ADHD to mean observed trajectories obtained from a local normative (i.e., non-ADHD) comparison group (n = 289; 80.6% male; M age = 9.9; SD = 1.1). Results indicated six latent trajectory classes for reading and mathematics and four classes for teacher social skills ratings. There was not only a relationship between trajectories of inattention symptoms and academic impairment, but also a similarly strong association between trajectory classes of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and achievement. Trajectory class membership correlated with socio-demographic and diagnostic characteristics, inattention and hyperactive-impulsive symptom trajectories, externalizing behavior in school, and treatment receipt and dosage. Although children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and social skills growth trajectories, those with behavioral and socio-demographic disadvantages are especially likely to display severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Evidence-based early screening and intervention that directly address academic and social impairments in elementary school-aged children with ADHD are warranted. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT00000388.
DuPaul, G. J., Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., Maczuga, S. (September 2017). Eight-year latent class trajectories of academic and social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.
PhD in Education graduate Alma Zaragoza-Petty has joined ScholarMatch as a college advisor. ScholarMatch provides free college counseling resources and services for aspiring college students from low-income families. The organization was founded by author and educator Dave Eggers in 2010 to connect students and the community to make college possible. ScholarMatch began as a simple crowdfunding platform and grew into a full service college-access organization that matches underserved youth with donors, resources, colleges, and professional networks.
Dr. Zaragoza-Petty is a native Californian who was also raised in Acapulco, Mexico. She has worked with students for almost 20 years in various capacities and settings. She started as an enrollment officer at East Los Angeles College, where she began her studies. While at UCLA, she tutored and advised students in South Central and Huntington Park, where she grew up. As the first in her family to go to college, she became interested in learning about educational equity, and went on to complete a Masters in Counseling at CSU Northridge and a predoctoral internship at UC Berkeley. She lived in NorCal for three years while working for the EAOP and Cal-SOAP programs assisting students become college-ready. She returned to SoCal for her doctoral studies at UC Irvine where she graduated in 2016 with a PhD in Education, specialized in Educational Policy and Social Context.
PhD Alumnus Kreshnik Begolli (Temple University Institute for Learning & Education Sciences) has published with Associate Professor Lindsey Richland (University of Chicago) in The Journal of Experimental Education (August 2017): "Bridging Cognitive Science and Real Classrooms: A Video Methodology for Experimental Research."
We describe a new approach to the use of video-based technology for conducting controlled experiments in classroom contexts. Specifically, we describe a process for editing video recordings of live classroom lessons to create multiple versions, such that only one aspect of the lesson is systematically varied. Other aspects of the instruction are all held constant, including audio, curricular content, student participation, and other notoriously hard-to-control details of the interactional context that impact learning (e.g., gestures, affect). These edited lesson versions can be randomly assigned to students by condition within classrooms to meet a high standard for random assignment. This technology provides opportunities for deriving causal data on the efficacy of teaching practices through stimuli approximating a typical everyday classroom context.
Begolli, K. N., & Richland, L. E. (August 2017). Bridging cognitive science and real classrooms: A video methodology for experimental research. The Journal of Experimental Education.
Priyanka Agarwal Receives CERA Research Partnership Grant: “Your stellar submission rose to the top.”
PhD student Priyanka Agarwal has been notified that her research proposal Questioning the Problem, Tinkering the Solution! Student Engagement in Mathematical Discourse has been selected by the California Educational Research Association (CERA) Awards Committee to receive this year's Research Partnership Grant.
Ms. Agarwal’s research aims to develop and implement new math units of study for low-achieving middle-school students in a predominantly working class Latina/o community. The study is being conducted using a research-practitioner partnership model in which Ms. Agarwal is partnering with a practicing math teacher to co-develop and implement lessons focusing on student problem-posing. Ms. Agarwal will receive a financial grant of $5,000, complimentary CERA membership and conference registration, and a $200 travel stipend in 2017 and 2018.
Ms. Agarwal and her collaborating math teacher, who also is receiving complimentary CERA membership, conference registration, and a travel stipend, will be recognized at the CERA Gives Back Lunch held during the 2017 Annual Conference in Anaheim, California. The 2017 conference theme is "Improving Education through Partnership: Sharing Ideas, Connecting Systems, and Creating Solutions."
Alumna Elizabeth Miller (UCI PhD in Education in 2016, specialized in Educational Policy and Social Context) has published all four chapters from her dissertation: Use of Spanish In Head Start and Dual Language Learners' Academic Achievement: A Mixed-Methods Study. Her dissertation advisor was Professor George Farkas. Currently, Dr. Miller is Project Director for SMART Beginnings at New York University Institute of Human Development and Social Change.
1. Spanish Instruction in Head Start and Dual Language Learners’ Academic Achievement
Miller, E. B. (2017). Spanish instruction in Head Start and Dual Language Learners’ academic achievement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 52, 159-169. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2017.07.008
Abstract: Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N=1141) and the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey, 2009 Cohort (N=825) were used to investigate whether Spanish instruction in Head Start differentially increased Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners' (DLLs) academic achievement. Although hypothesized that Spanish instruction would be beneficial for DLLs' early literacy and math skills, results from residualized growth models showed there were no such positive associations. Somewhat surprisingly, DLL children instructed in Spanish had higher English receptive vocabulary skills at the end of the Head Start year than those not instructed, with children randomly assigned to Head Start and instructed in Spanish having the highest scores. Policy implications for Head Start-eligible Spanish-speaking DLLs are discussed. Head Start data were used to determine program impacts for Spanish-speaking DLLs. The association between Spanish instruction and English outcomes was examined. Instructing DLL children in Spanish improved English receptive vocabulary. Instructing DLL children in Spanish did not improve other outcome domains.
2. Four Classrooms Model How Teachers Use Spanish in Head Start
Miller, E. B. (2017). Four classrooms model how teachers use Spanish in Head Start. NHSA Dialog: The Research-to-Practice Journal for the Early Childhood Field, 19(3), 83-93.
Abstract: National Head Start policy mandates incorporating Dual Language Learner (DLL) children’s home language in classroom instruction. It is less clear, however, how this is actually implemented in early childhood classrooms. In four local Head Start centers in a predominantly Spanish-speaking DLL county, classroom observations helped shed light on when the home language of Spanish was used and how it may have contributed to DLL children’s school readiness skills. The observations revealed that Spanish was used to promote certain academic as well as planning and recall skills; to provide emotional caregiving; and to communicate with parents as well as during daily health routines. Thus, in line with Head Start’s “whole child” model, Spanish was used for academic, socio-emotional, and health development as well as to strengthen the home-school partnership.
3. How Spanish is Used in Head Start: Observational Evidence from Four Classrooms
Miller, E. B. (2017). How Spanish is used in Head Start: Observational evidence from four classrooms. NHSA Dialog: The Research-to-Practice Journal for the Early Childhood Field, 19(3), 1-26.
Abstract: Developmental science recommends and national Head Start policy mandates incorporating Dual Language Learner (DLL) children’s home language in classroom instruction. It is less clear, however, how this is implemented in the real-world context of early childhood classrooms. In four local Head Start centers in a predominantly Spanish-speaking DLL county, exploratory qualitative observations helped shed light on when the home language of Spanish was used in the classroom and how it may have contributed to DLL children’s school readiness skills. Emergent patterns from the observations revealed that Spanish was used to promote certain academic as well as planning and recall skills; to provide emotional caregiving; and to communicate with parents as well as during daily health routines. Thus, in line with Head Start’s “whole child” model, Spanish was used in the domains of academic, socio-emotional, and health development as well as to strengthen the home-school partnership. Implications for practice are discussed.
4. Child Care Enrollment Decisions Among Dual Language Learner Families: The Role of Spanish Language Instruction in the Child Care Setting
Miller, E. B. (2016). Child care enrollment decisions among Dual Language Learner families: The role of Spanish language instruction in the child care setting. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36(3), 223-232. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.01.003
Abstract: Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 1141) and the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey, 2009 Cohort (N = 825) were used to describe child care enrollment decisions among Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learner (DLL) families. In particular, logistic regression models tested which child, family, and institutional characteristics predicted enrollment in early care and education (ECE) settings that used Spanish for instruction versus enrollment in settings that did not use Spanish. Results showed that whether the child’s first language was exclusively Spanish and whether other DLL families previously attended the ECE arrangement strongly predicted whether that child enrolled. Policy implications for Head Start-eligible Spanish-speaking DLLs are discussed.
About Elizabeth B. Miller: Dr. Elizabeth B. Miller received her Ph.D. from the School of Education at the University of California, Irvine specializing in Education Policy & Social Context. She also holds a Master's degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a B.A. in Economics from Columbia University. Elizabeth’s research interests include early childhood policy interventions and how these interventions can increase low-income children’s school readiness. She is particularly interested for which groups of children these policies work best and has a special focus on Dual Language Learners. Recently, Elizabeth has expanded her focus to include interventions for infants and toddlers in the 0-3 age period. She is currently the project director for the Smart Beginnings. (Source: http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/ihdsc/smart/team)
"Relations Between Third Grade Teachers' Depressive Symptoms and their Feedback to Students, with Implications for Student Mathematics Achievement"
Leigh Mclean (ASU) and Chancellor's Professor Carol McDonald Connor have published in School Psychology Quarterly: "Relations between Third Grade Teachers' Depressive Symptoms and their Feedback to Students, with Implications for Student Mathematics Achievement."
Recent studies have observed connections among teachers' depressive symptoms and student outcomes; however, the specific mechanisms through which teachers' mental health characteristics operate in the classroom remain largely unknown. The present study used student-level observation methods to examine the relations between third-grade teachers' (N = 32) depressive symptoms and their academic feedback to students (N = 310) and sought to make inferences about how these factors might influence students' mathematics achievement. A novel observational tool, the Teacher Feedback Coding System-Academic (TFCS-A), was used that assesses feedback across 2 dimensions-teacher affect and instructional strategy, which have been shown to be important to student learning. Multilevel exploratory factor analysis of TFCS-A data suggested 2 primary factors: positive feedback and neutral/negative feedback. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that positive feedback was related to higher math achievement among students who began the year with weaker math skills and that teachers who reported more depressive symptoms less frequently provided this positive feedback. Results offer new information about a type of instruction that may be affected by teachers' depressive symptoms and inform efforts aimed at improving teachers' instructional interactions with students.
Mclean, L., & Connor, C. M. (August 2017). Relations between third grade teachers' depressive symptoms and their feedback to students, with implications for student mathematics achievement. School Psychology Quarterly. DOI: 10.1037/spq0000225